Tyler Todd's Web Definitions

This is a webpage where you can find the meanings of a lot of different words that have to do with the internet and coding. Using the links provided, you can access easy navigation throughout my webpage. Simply click on a letter to jump down to that letter's definitions. Hope you enjoy.

Just to start off, there are a few words I want to define to give an example of the definitions that Netlingo provides. A couple words that I want to point out are Ajax and Serial Port. Ajax is a programming technique for creating interactive Web applications. A Serial Port is a connection point on a computer, it's used to connect a serial interface device (such as a mouse or modem) to the system.

In order to define these words, I mainly used the website Netlingo. Netlingo allows me to look at the definitions for many Web terms. There were a few that I had to rely on Google to define for me. One I could not find on Netlingo was PNG.

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A

Ajax
A programming technique for creating interactive Web applications. Small amounts of data are exchanged as needed instead of pulling entire Web pages to be reloaded each time the user makes a change. This increases the Web page's response time, interactivity, and overall usability. Ajax is a cross-platform technology that can be used on many different operating systems, computer architectures, and Web browsers as it is based on open standards such as JavaScript and XML
ARPAnet
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network The precursor to the Internet, it was a network developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's by the U.S. Department of Defense. As an experiment in wide area networking (WAN), ARPANet was developed with the goal of being robust enough to survive a nuclear war. Part of the experiment was to study how distributed, noncentralized networks work.

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B

Binary Numbers
A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2, it is unlike the numbering systems most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for computers, for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0 through 9).
Bit
The basic unit of information in a binary numbering system, it takes 8 bits to make up a byte. For the most part, bits are used to describe transmission speeds, whereas bytes generally refer to storage capacity. It works like this: The electronic circuitry in computers detects the difference between two states (high current and low current) and represents these two states as one of two numbers, 1 or 0. These basic high/low, either/or, yes/no units of information are called bits. The word bit derives from the phrase
Browser
A program used to view, download, upload, surf, or otherwise access documents (for example, Web pages) on the Internet. Internet Explorer and Firefox are well-known Web browsers, just like Netscape used to be, that enable you to view and interact with Web sites.

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C

Cache
The action of storing Web files for later reuse so that they can be accessed more quickly by the end-user. When you're on the Web, the cache improves your Web browser's performance: It stores HTML page code, graphics, and multimedia elements so that when you return to that particular Web page (even if you just hit the back button), the information doesn't have to be downloaded all over again.
Cloud computing
A style of computing in which dynamic, scalable and virtual resources are provided over the Internet. Cloud computing refers to services that provide common business applications online, which are accessed from a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers. For instance, Webmail such as Microsoft's Windows Live Hotmail, Apple's MobileMe calendar, and Amazon's S3 storage service (which numerous other Web applications rely on to hold their data) are examples of cloud computing.

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D

Default
A computer software setting or preference that states what will automatically happen in the event that the user has not stated another preference. For example, your computer may have a default setting to launch or start Netscape whenever a GIF is opened; if you prefer to use Photoshop whenever you need to view a GIF, you can change the default setting.
DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address -just like a telephone number- which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address." But it is hard to remember everyone's IP address. The DNS makes it easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 66.201.69.207, you can type www.netlingo.com. It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember. Translating the name into the IP address is called "resolving the domain name." The goal of the DNS is for any Internet user any place in the world to reach a specific Web site IP address by entering its domain name. Domain names are also used for reaching e-mail addresses and for other Internet applications. The DNS is a static, hierarchical name service that uses TCP/IP hosts and is housed on a number of servers on the Internet.

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E

Editor
A software program used to write and edit HTML code.
E-mail
E-mail is mail that's electronically transmitted by your computer. As opposed to snail mail, e-mail sends your messages instantaneously, anywhere in the world. It is the killer app of the Internet because of its capability to send messages at any time, to anyone, for less money than mailing a letter or calling someone on the telephone. In fact, there are now more e-mail addresses than telephone numbers in the world, and more people have multiple e-mail addresses than multiple telephone numbers. Linked by high-speed data connections that create a global network, e-mail lets you compose messages and transmit them in seconds to one or more recipients across the office, the street, or the country. All you need to get started is an e-mail account, an online connection, a computer, and an e-mail program

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F

FAQ
A list of questions and answers related to a Web site, newsgroup, software, or any kind of product or service. Because these are "frequently asked" questions, most users can find the information they need on a FAQ So, before you send an e-mail to customer service, check the FAQ on the Web site. FAQs keep newsgroup discussions from being overrun by newbie questions.
Firefox
Firefox is an open source browser organized by the folks at Mozilla that empowers users to browse faster, more safely and more efficiently than other browsers.
Font
The type and style of text letters and characters you see in documents, Web pages, and graphical images of words (images that look like they're typed or written). There are many font choices available to choose from (for example, Helvetica, Arial, and Times New Roman). Fonts make text look different, and some people use funky fonts to express themselves.
FTP
The standard method for downloading and uploading files over the Internet. With FTP, you can login to a server and transfer files (meaning you can "send" or "receive" files). Some sites have public file archives that you can access by using FTP with the account name "anonymous" and your e-mail address as the password. This type of access is called anonymous FTP. Macintosh owners use a program called Fetch; one of the best FTP programs for Windows is called WS-FTP. Knowing FTP is necessary (and easy) if you want to create your own Web site.

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G

Gigabyte
A unit of measurement approximately equal to 1 billion bytes. A gigabyte is used to quantify memory or disk capacity. One gigabyte equals 1,000MB (actually 1,024 megabytes)
Google
Founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two Stanford Ph.D. candidates who developed a technologically advanced method for finding information on the Internet, its most famous product is a hybrid search engine that ranks the popularity of results that match your keyword search. It has an index of billions of Web pages. Google focuses primarily on delivering the best search experience on the Web, by providing a search site and by licensing its search technology to commercial sites. Ultimately, Web sites are now allowed to freely using Google technology on their own sites, such as Google Local and Google Maps.
Graphic
A picture or still image generated on a computer. There are two basic types of computer-generated graphics: object-oriented graphics (vector graphics) and bitmapped graphics (raster graphics). "Graphics" may be short for "graphic arts," including the creation, modification, and printing of visual works.

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H

HTML
The lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. HTML is a nonproprietary format based on SGML. It can be created and processed in a wide range of software programs, from simple plain text editors to WYSIWYG programs to sophisticated authoring tools.
HTTP
The standard Internet protocol for the exchange of information on the World Wide Web. Basically, it defines URLs by telling the server what to send to the client. The client can view Web pages, FTP sites, Gopher sites, Usenet newsgroups, or other areas of the Net. HTTP enables Web authors to code hyperlinks into documents. Once the files are FTP'd to the server, those links can be clicked on to initiate a data transfer process. Information is retrieved without any further input from the user (this is known as "transparent access," in which the user doesn't even need to know where the document is coming from or how it was accessed)
Hyperlink
The text or graphics on a Web site that can be clicked on with a mouse to take you to another Web page or a different area of the same Web page. Hyperlinks are usually created (or coded) in HTML. They are also used to load multimedia files, such as AVI movies and AU sound files.

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I

Internet
The most important technological innovation of our generation, the Internet is actually a network of networks. Originally designed by the U.S. Department of Defense so that a communication signal could withstand nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPANet, the most robust communication technology. It is a system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data transfer and communication services, such as remote login, file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (e-mail), newsgroups, and the World Wide Web. The Internet greatly extends the reach of each connected computer network (see: network effect, IP).
IP
Internet Protocol -or- Intellectual Property The set of technology standards and technical specifications that enable information to be routed from one network to another over the Internet. It is the way networks exchange data with each other. For example, IP is the delivery mechanism by which your e-mail gets sent. IP defines how the data will be divided into packets; each packet is coded with an IP address; and various packets constitute a single message. These packets travel across the Internet by different routes and arrive at the destination in a scrambled order. A second protocol, TCP (transmission control protocol), is needed to put the packets back in sequence. And that, my friends, is the basis for how the Internet works.
Internet Service Provider
A company that provides users access to the Internet. Before you can connect to the Net, you must first establish an account with an ISP. For a monthly fee, the Internet Service Provider gives you a software package, a username, a password, and an access phone number. Once you install the software on your computer and go through the registration process, you'll be able to surf the Web, send e-mail, chat, and read the newsgroups, among many other things.

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J

JPG
One of the two most common types of image formats used on the World Wide Web (the other being GIF). The shorter extension, JPG (without the E), is usually used in association with PC platform files.

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K

Kilobyte
A unit of measurement equivalent to one thousand bytes of computer memory or disk capacity. For example, a device that has 256K of memory can store approximately 256,000 bytes (or characters) at one time. In decimal systems, kilo stands for 1,000, but the computer world is based on a binary system of twos instead of tens.

L

LAN
A network that connects computers in a relatively small, predetermined area (such as a room, a building, or a set of buildings). LANs can be connected to each other over telephone lines and radio waves. Workstations and personal computers in an office are commonly connected in a LAN. This allows individual users to send or receive files and to share access to files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called a node.
Local Computer
In a LAN or on the Internet, this is the computer you are using. As opposed to remote, which means off-site or "somewhere else," local means on-site or "what's in front of you."

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M

Megabyte
A million bytes or one thousand kilobytes
Meta Tag
An HTML tag that contains information about a Web page. Some search engines, such as AltaVista, use spiders that index Web pages based on meta tags. So, in theory, an HTML or Web page author can control how a site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will be called up during a user's search. Within the meta tag, a keyword tag defines the primary keywords of a Web page. The meta tag can also specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to jump to after a certain amount of time (this is known as client pull). So, a Web page author can control the amount of time a Web page is up on the screen, as well as where the browser will go next.

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N

Navigate
The act of moving around the Web by clicking on hypertext links (or paths) that take you from one Web page to another. As you navigate, you move from one computer to another and from one server to another without realizing it.
Netiquette
The code of conduct and unofficial rules that govern online interaction and behavior, it comes from "net" plus "etiquette."
Network
The term actually has many different meanings depending on the person, company, or context in which it is being used. Basically, it is a collection of two or more computers and associated devices that are linked together with communications equipment. Once connected, each part of the network can share the software, hardware, and information contained in the other parts.

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O

Open Source
the source is short for source code In general, it is any program whose source code is made available for use or modification by users, developers, or hackers. Historically, the makers of proprietary software have generally not made source code available.
Operating System
The foundation software of a computer system, responsible for controlling and launching the installed applications and computer peripherals.

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P

Packet
a.k.a. datagrams The name for a unit of data sent across a network. Information is sent over the Internet (and many other networks) in packets.
Portable Network Graphics
A raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.

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Q

Query
A question or request to find a particular file, Web site, record, or set of records in a search engine or database.
Qwerty
An acronym that refers to a standard keyboard (as identified by the first six letters in the upper row).

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R

RAM
Random-Access Memory Hardware inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term basis and stores information while you work.
RGB
Red, Green, Blue The three colors that create all of the other colors on a computer screen.
RSS
Really Simple Syndication -or- Rich Site Summary Put simply, an "RSS feed" is a format for distributing and gathering content from sources across the Web, including newspapers, magazines, and blogs.

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S

Serial Port
A connection point on a computer, it's used to connect a serial interface device (such as a mouse or modem) to the system.
Server
A host computer on a network, it houses information and responds to requests for information (for example, it houses Web sites and executes their links to other Web sites).
Spider
Synonymous with a crawler, this is a program that searches the Internet and attempts to locate new, publicly accessible resources, such as WWW documents, files available in public FTP archives, and Gopher documents.

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T

Tag
In Web programming languages, it is the code that describes a command or instruction so that a Web browser will be able to interpret and display it.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The set of protocols that make Telnet, FTP, e-mail, and other services possible among computers that don't belong to the same network.

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U

Upload
To copy a file from your local computer to a server or host system; the reverse process of download.
URL
An acronym/term that describes the location and access method of a resource on the Internet; for example, the URL "http://www.netlingo.com" describes the type of access method being used (http-the protocol) and the server location that hosts the Web site (www.netlingo.com-the address). All Web sites have URL.
User
A term that defines the online audience, it also refers to anyone who "uses" a computer. The term "users" rubs some people the wrong way because, in the past, if you said you were a user, it meant you were habitually consuming an illicit drug. Nowadays, a user is a person who is online. It comes from techies, who refer to people as "computer users."

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V

Virtual
A simulation of the real thing, it means the same as "almost." You will see this term appear before various Internet terms to indicate a simulation technology that enables you to cross boundaries and experience something without needing it to be physically present, as in virtual sex, virtual theme parks, and virtual communities. The Internet itself can be seen as a virtual world; however, most users prefer the term "online."
Virus (Computer Virus)
A software program that replicates on computer systems by incorporating itself into shared programs. Viruses range from harmless pranks that merely display an annoying message to programs that can destroy files or disable a computer altogether. Whether they're considered malicious or malevolent, all viruses spread rapidly. For example, from one computer to millions of others around the world, infecting machines and causing them to crash.

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W

W3C
An organization that exists to realize the full potential of the Web, it is a special interest group comprised of programmers, Web developers, execs in the industry, and users who help define specifications for the development of Web technology. Be sure to also read through these definitions: HTTP, P3P, RDF, XML
WAN
A network that uses high-speed, long-distance communications cables or satellites to connect computers over distances greater than those traversed by LANs (which range about two miles). The Internet itself is considered a WAN.
Web
What you see is what you get
Web Host
The business of providing the equipment and services required to host and maintain files for one or more Web sites and to provide fast Internet connections to those sites. Most hosting is "shared," which means that Web sites of multiple companies are on the same server in order to share costs. Virtual hosting means that services will be transparent (so that each site has its own domain name and e-mail addresses). Dedicated hosting means that the Web hosting company provides all of the equipment and assumes all of the responsibility for technical support and maintenance of a Web site.
WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get (pronounced: whiz-ee-wig) An acronym for a technology that allows you to view or print a document exactly as it looks. This term has also morphed into an expression used in online dating sites, for example "Listen I'll be honest with you, I'm not too complex. WYSIWYG!"

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X

XHTML
NetLingo Classification: Net Programming
XML
Programming language/specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents. It enables Web authors and Web developers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML. For example, XML supports links that point to multiple documents (as opposed to HTML links, which can reference just one destination each).

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Y

Yahoo!
It's been said that "Yahoo" stands for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle," but then again, many things have been said about this company. Based on the Web site created by David Filo and Jerry Yang of the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University, Yahoo! is one of the Web's most popular destinations and is considered the poster child of the first generation of the Internet. With a keen eye for the popular as well as the useful, Filo and Yang created a directory of Web resources that now performs literally millions of searches on the Web each day.

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Z

Zine
The nickname for an electronic magazine. Just like their real-world counterparts, online magazines primarily derive revenue from ad banner sales. Broadly speaking, a zine is any Web site that publishes content.
Zip (As in a .zip file)
A Windows-based compressed file. ZIP is the industry standard for data compression technology, in part because it can hold directory structures in addition to files. On the Net, large graphics and programs are usually compressed as ZIP files and then made available for download. After you download a ZIP file, you need to use a decompression software program to "unzip" it. This may sound a bit complicated, but in fact, the process of zipping and unzipping files is quite easy. It especially comes in handy when you want to send digital photos to a family member.

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