Emmanuel Grant's Web Definitions

This is my page of web definitions. As a freshman, I am taking Intro to Web Page. Below are the definitions I was asked to describe by my teacher. These are many interesting words that you might run into on the internet. The definitions are separated in alphabetical order. Navigate through the definitions using the links provided.

Some definitions you'll find on my page are Google and Yahoo. These two definitions are particularly interesting to me. These are both well known search engines. They are both more than just search engines. You will read more about them in on this page.

I got these definitions off of netlingo.com. Some of these words were not defined on netlingo. Words like XHTML and ISP. To find these words, I had to go to Google to search the words.

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A

Ajax
Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. A programming technique for creating interactive Web applications. Small amounts of data are exchanged as needed instead of pulling entire Web pages to be reloaded each time the user makes a change. This increases the Web page's response time, interactivity, and overall usability. Ajax is a cross-platform technology that can be used on many different operating systems, computer architectures, and Web browsers as it is based on open standards such as JavaScript and XML.
ARPAnet
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The precursor to the Internet, it was a network developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's by the U.S. Department of Defense. As an experiment in wide area networking (WAN), ARPANet was developed with the goal of being robust enough to survive a nuclear war. Part of the experiment was to study how distributed, noncentralized networks work.

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B

Binary Numbers
A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2, it is unlike the numbering systems most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for computers, for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0 through 9).
Bit
The basic unit of information in a binary numbering system, it takes 8 bits to make up a byte. For the most part, bits are used to describe transmission speeds, whereas bytes generally refer to storage capacity. It works like this: The electronic circuitry in computers detects the difference between two states (high current and low current) and represents these two states as one of two numbers, 1 or 0. These basic high/low, either/or, yes/no units of information are called bits. The word bit derives from the phrase "binary digit."
Browser
A program used to view, download, upload, surf, or otherwise access documents (for example, Web pages) on the Internet. Internet Explorer and Firefox are well-known Web browsers, just like Netscape used to be, that enable you to view and interact with Web sites.

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C

Cache
Cache is a form of high-speed memory that your computer sets aside to store frequently accessed data; once the data is stored, it can be retrieved directly from your hard drive rather than from a server. Accessing your hard drive is much faster than Internet access, so this speeds things up. Hard disk access, however, is slower than RAM, which is why your computer also has a disk cache, an area that stores information you might need from your hard disk. It's a good thing to clean out your cache every now and then (only because it helps your computer run faster), but keep in mind that recently accessed Web pages may have to be reloaded. Cache also refers to the concealed "valuables" hidden at the end of a geocache hunt!
Cloud computing
A style of computing in which dynamic, scalable and virtual resources are provided over the Internet. Cloud computing refers to services that provide common business applications online, which are accessed from a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers. For instance, Webmail such as Microsoft's Windows Live Hotmail, Apple's MobileMe calendar, and Amazon's S3 storage service (which numerous other Web applications rely on to hold their data) are examples of cloud computing. Cloud computing specifically refers to incorporating software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Users do not need to have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.

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D

Default
A computer software setting or preference that states what will automatically happen in the event that the user has not stated another preference. For example, your computer may have a default setting to launch or start Netscape whenever a GIF is opened; if you prefer to use Photoshop whenever you need to view a GIF, you can change the default setting.
DOCTYPE
Doctypes are simply a way to tell the browser—or any other parsers—what type of document they’re looking at. In the case of HTML files, they refer to the specific version and flavor of HTML. The doctype should always be the first item at the top of all your HTML files. In the past, the doctype declaration was an ugly and hard-to-remember mess.
DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address -just like a telephone number- which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address." But it is hard to remember everyone's IP address. The DNS makes it easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 66.201.69.207, you can type www.netlingo.com. It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember. Translating the name into the IP address is called "resolving the domain name." The goal of the DNS is for any Internet user any place in the world to reach a specific Web site IP address by entering its domain name. Domain names are also used for reaching e-mail addresses and for other Internet applications. The DNS is a static, hierarchical name service that uses TCP/IP hosts and is housed on a number of servers on the Internet.

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E

Editor
A software program used to write and edit HTML code.
E-mail
E-mail is mail that's electronically transmitted by your computer. As opposed to snail mail, e-mail sends your messages instantaneously, anywhere in the world. It is the killer app of the Internet because of its capability to send messages at any time, to anyone, for less money than mailing a letter or calling someone on the telephone. In fact, there are now more e-mail addresses than telephone numbers in the world, and more people have multiple e-mail addresses than multiple telephone numbers. Linked by high-speed data connections that create a global network, e-mail lets you compose messages and transmit them in seconds to one or more recipients across the office, the street, or the country. All you need to get started is an e-mail account, an online connection, a computer, and an e-mail program.

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F

FAQ
A list of questions and answers related to a Web site, newsgroup, software, or any kind of product or service. Because these are "frequently asked" questions, most users can find the information they need on a FAQ So, before you send an e-mail to customer service, check the FAQ on the Web site. FAQs keep newsgroup discussions from being overrun by newbie questions.
Firefox
Firefox is an open source browser organized by the folks at Mozilla that empowers users to browse faster, more safely and more efficiently than other browsers.
Font
The type and style of text letters and characters you see in documents, Web pages, and graphical images of words (images that look like they're typed or written). There are many font choices available to choose from (for example, Helvetica, Arial, and Times New Roman). Fonts make text look different, and some people use funky fonts to express themselves.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol is the standard method for downloading and uploading files over the Internet. With FTP, you can login to a server and transfer files (meaning you can "send" or "receive" files). Some sites have public file archives that you can access by using FTP with the account name "anonymous" and your e-mail address as the password. This type of access is called anonymous FTP. Macintosh owners use a program called Fetch; one of the best FTP programs for Windows is called WS-FTP. Knowing FTP is necessary (and easy) if you want to create your own Web site.

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G

Gigabyte
A unit of measurement approximately equal to 1 billion bytes. A gigabyte is used to quantify memory or disk capacity. One gigabyte equals 1,000MB (actually 1,024 megabytes).
Google
A technologically advanced method for finding information on the Internet, its most famous product is a hybrid search engine that ranks the popularity of results that match your keyword search. It has an index of billions of Web pages. Google focuses primarily on delivering the best search experience on the Web, by providing a search site and by licensing its search technology to commercial sites. Ultimately, Web sites are now allowed to freely using Google technology on their own sites, such as Google Local and Google Maps.
Graphic
A picture or still image generated on a computer. There are two basic types of computer-generated graphics: object-oriented graphics (vector graphics) and bitmapped graphics (raster graphics). "Graphics" may be short for "graphic arts," including the creation, modification, and printing of visual works.

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H

HTML
The lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. HTML is a nonproprietary format based on SGML. It can be created and processed in a wide range of software programs, from simple plain text editors to WYSIWYG programs to sophisticated authoring tools. HTML is a mark-up language (versus a programming language) that uses tags to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, and links (like those seen on the NetLingo.com HTML Code Cheat Sheet). It tells a Web browser how to display text and images. You can see a Web page's HTML code if you select "view source" from the View menu in your Web browser.

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I

Internet
The most important technological innovation of our generation, the Internet is actually a network of networks. Originally designed by the U.S. Department of Defense so that a communication signal could withstand nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet was first known as the ARPANet, the most robust communication technology. It is a system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data transfer and communication services, such as remote login, file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (e-mail), newsgroups, and the World Wide Web. The Internet greatly extends the reach of each connected computer network (see: network effect, IP).
IP
The set of technology standards and technical specifications that enable information to be routed from one network to another over the Internet. It is the way networks exchange data with each other. For example, IP is the delivery mechanism by which your e-mail gets sent. IP defines how the data will be divided into packets; each packet is coded with an IP address; and various packets constitute a single message. These packets travel across the Internet by different routes and arrive at the destination in a scrambled order. A second protocol, TCP (transmission control protocol), is needed to put the packets back in sequence. And that, my friends, is the basis for how the Internet works. "IP" also refers to "Intellectual Property" for example, NetLingo.com is copyrighted and is the intellectual property of NetLingo Inc. A legal term, intellectual property reflects the idea that the subject matter is the product of the "mind" or the "intellect" and refers to written and recorded media, and inventions.
ISP
A company that provides users access to the Internet. Before you can connect to the Net, you must first establish an account with an ISP. For a monthly fee, the Internet Service Provider gives you a software package, a username, a password, and an access phone number. Once you install the software on your computer and go through the registration process, you'll be able to surf the Web, send e-mail, chat, and read the newsgroups, among many other things.

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J

JPG
A standardized image compression mechanism, JPG is named after the original name of the committee that wrote the standard, the "Joint Photographic Experts Group." JPG is designed for compressing either full-color or gray-scale images of natural, real-world scenes. It works well on photographs, naturalistic artwork, and similar material; not so well on lettering, simple cartoons, or line drawings. JPG handles only still images, but there is a related standard called MPEG for motion pictures. JPG is "lossy," meaning that the decompressed image isn't quite as sharp as the one you started with. (There are "lossless" image compression algorithms, but JPG achieves much greater compression than is possible with lossless methods.) JPG is designed to exploit known limitations of the human eye, notably the fact that small color changes are perceived less accurately than small changes in brightness. Thus, JPG is intended for compressing images that will be looked at by humans.

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K

Kilobyte
A unit of measurement equivalent to one thousand bytes of computer memory or disk capacity. For example, a device that has 256K of memory can store approximately 256,000 bytes (or characters) at one time. In decimal systems, kilo stands for 1,000, but the computer world is based on a binary system of twos instead of tens.

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L

LAN
A network that connects computers in a relatively small, predetermined area (such as a room, a building, or a set of buildings). LANs can be connected to each other over telephone lines and radio waves. Workstations and personal computers in an office are commonly connected in a LAN. This allows individual users to send or receive files and to share access to files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called a node.
Local Computer
In a LAN or on the Internet, this is the computer you are using. As opposed to remote, which means off-site or "somewhere else," local means on-site or "what's in front of you."

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M

Megabyte
A million bytes or one thousand kilobytes.
Meta Tag
An HTML tag that contains information about a Web page. Some search engines, such as AltaVista, use spiders that index Web pages based on meta tags. So, in theory, an HTML or Web page author can control how a site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will be called up during a user's search. Within the meta tag, a keyword tag defines the primary keywords of a Web page. The meta tag can also specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to jump to after a certain amount of time (this is known as client pull). So, a Web page author can control the amount of time a Web page is up on the screen, as well as where the browser will go next.

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N

Navigate
The act of moving around the Web by clicking on hypertext links (or paths) that take you from one Web page to another. As you navigate, you move from one computer to another and from one server to another without realizing it.
Netiquette
The code of conduct and unofficial rules that govern online interaction and behavior, it comes from "net" plus "etiquette."
Network
The term actually has many different meanings depending on the person, company, or context in which it is being used. Basically, it is a collection of two or more computers and associated devices that are linked together with communications equipment. Once connected, each part of the network can share the software, hardware, and information contained in the other parts.

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O

Open Source
In general, it is any program whose source code is made available for use or modification by users, developers, or hackers. Historically, the makers of proprietary software have generally not made source code available.
Operating System
The foundation software of a computer system, responsible for controlling and launching the installed applications and computer peripherals. Common operating systems include MS-DOS, Unix, OS/2, Macintosh, and Windows. It is the software that schedules tasks, allocates storage, handles the interface to peripheral hardware, and presents a default interface to the user when no application program is running.

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P

Packet
The name for a unit of data sent across a network. Information is sent over the Internet (and many other networks) in packets.
PNG
Portable Network Graphics (PNG), is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression. PNG was created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most used lossless image compression format on the Internet.

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Q

Query
A question or request to find a particular file, Web site, record, or set of records in a search engine or database.
Qwerty
An acronym that refers to a standard keyboard (as identified by the first six letters in the upper row). One of the reasons why BlackBerries are so popular is because they have a QWERTY keyboard, whereas IM'ing on a regular cell phone is more difficult because it only has a numeric keypad.

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R

RAM
Hardware inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term basis and stores information while you work. RAM is one of the things that make your computer run faster. It comes in 32-bit, 64-bit, 128-bit, 256-bit, and higher, and you can add additional "blocks" of RAM, depending on your computer, is hardware inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term basis and stores information while you work. RAM is one of the things that make your computer run faster. It comes in 32-bit, 64-bit, 128-bit, 256-bit, and higher, and you can add additional "blocks" of RAM, depending on your computer.
RGB
The three colors, red green and blue, that create all of the other colors on a computer screen.

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S

Serial Port
A connection point on a computer, it's used to connect a serial interface device (such as a mouse or modem) to the system. Serial ports are typically identified as COM ports, and most computers come with two (often with the capacity to add more).
Server
A host computer on a network, it houses information and responds to requests for information (for example, it houses Web sites and executes their links to other Web sites). The term "server" also refers to the software that makes the act of "serving information" possible. Commerce servers, for example, use software to run the main functions of an e-commerce Web site, such as product display, online ordering, and inventory management (you'll also hear this described as shopping cart technology). A server is the control computer on a LAN, meaning it controls the software, access to printers, and other parts of the network (usually accompanied by workstations that "share the load"). A server may be dedicated (where its sole purpose is to be the server) or non-dedicated (where in addition to being the server, it can be used for basic computing purposes).
Spider
Synonymous with a crawler, this is a program that searches the Internet and attempts to locate new, publicly accessible resources, such as WWW documents, files available in public FTP archives, and Gopher documents.

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T

Tag
In Web programming languages, it is the code that describes a command or instruction so that a Web browser will be able to interpret and display it. In order to link an image or word on a Web page, you must put specific tags around the image or word in the code. This is known as basic HTML and it's pretty easy. Look up the HTML definition for more info.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the set of protocols that make Telnet, FTP, e-mail, and other services possible among computers that don't belong to the same network.

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U

Upload
To copy a file from your local computer to a server or host system; the reverse process of download.
URL
An acronym/term that describes the location and access method of a resource on the Internet; for example, the URL "http://www.netlingo.com" describes the type of access method being used (http-the protocol) and the server location that hosts the Web site (www.netlingo.com-the address). All Web sites have URLs.
User
A term that defines the online audience, it also refers to anyone who "uses" a computer. The term "users" rubs some people the wrong way because, in the past, if you said you were a user, it meant you were habitually consuming an illicit drug. Nowadays, a user is a person who is online. It comes from techies, who refer to people as "computer users."

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V

Virtual
A simulation of the real thing, it means the same as "almost." You will see this term appear before various Internet terms to indicate a simulation technology that enables you to cross boundaries and experience something without needing it to be physically present, as in virtual sex, virtual theme parks, and virtual communities. The Internet itself can be seen as a virtual world; however, most users prefer the term "online."
Virus (Computer Virus)
A software program that replicates on computer systems by incorporating itself into shared programs. Viruses range from harmless pranks that merely display an annoying message to programs that can destroy files or disable a computer altogether. Whether they're considered malicious or malevolent, all viruses spread rapidly. For example, from one computer to millions of others around the world, infecting machines and causing them to crash.

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W

W3C
World Wide Web Consortium is an organization that exists to realize the full potential of the Web, it is a special interest group comprised of programmers, Web developers, execs in the industry, and users who help define specifications for the development of Web technology. Be sure to also read through these definitions: HTTP, P3P, RDF, XML.
WAN
Wide Area Network is a network that uses high-speed, long-distance communications cables or satellites to connect computers over distances greater than those traversed by LANs (which range about two miles). The Internet itself is considered a WAN.
Web
"The Web," as it is more commonly called, can be described as a collection of graphical pages on the Internet that can be read and interacted with by computer. You need an Internet connection, a computer, a Web browser, and a few specialized programs (listed below) in order to access and view this online information.
Web Host
The business of providing the equipment and services required to host and maintain files for one or more Web sites and to provide fast Internet connections to those sites. Most hosting is "shared," which means that Web sites of multiple companies are on the same server in order to share costs. Virtual hosting means that services will be transparent (so that each site has its own domain name and e-mail addresses). Dedicated hosting means that the Web hosting company provides all of the equipment and assumes all of the responsibility for technical support and maintenance of a Web site.
WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get is an acronym for a technology that allows you to view or print a document exactly as it looks. This term has also morphed into an expression used in online dating sites, for example "Listen I'll be honest with you, I'm not too complex. WYSIWYG!"

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X

XHTML
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.
XM
eXtensible Markup Language is a programming language/specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents. It enables Web authors and Web developers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML. For example, XML supports links that point to multiple documents (as opposed to HTML links, which can reference just one destination each).

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Y

Yahoo!
You Always Have Other Options is an acronym used in texting, online chat, instant messaging, e-mail, blogs, and newsgroup postings, it is also considered a form of online jargon or text message shorthand.

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Z

Zine
The nickname for an electronic magazine. Just like their real-world counterparts, online magazines primarily derive revenue from ad banner sales. Broadly speaking, a zine is any Web site that publishes content.
Zip (As in a .zip file)
A Windows-based compressed file. ZIP is the industry standard for data compression technology, in part because it can hold directory structures in addition to files. On the Net, large graphics and programs are usually compressed as ZIP files and then made available for download. After you download a ZIP file, you need to use a decompression software program to "unzip" it. This may sound a bit complicated, but in fact, the process of zipping and unzipping files is quite easy. It especially comes in handy when you want to send digital photos to a family member.

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